How strong is the gravitational pull of the sun
The sun is really massive and really big. It has a mass of about 2 times ten raised to the thirtieth power kilograms. (that's 0 kg), and a radius of about 700000 kilometers.
This makes the strength of gravity on the "surface" of the sun (that is, the photosphere, the shiny part we see), 28 times stronger than the force of gravity on the surface of the Earth. Out here, at the distance we orbit the sun, the gravitational pull of the sun is only 0.0006 of the strength of the earth's gravity on the surface of the earth. But that's enough to pull the entire planet around in a big, nearly circular orbit, once per year. And the variation in the strength of the sun's gravitational pull from the part of the earth that faces towards the sun to the part that faces away is partly responsible for the tides of the ocean. The moon's gravity plays a somewhat larger role in the tides. Although it's weaker than the Sun's gravity here, it varies more from one side of the Earth to another.
"The strength of gravity on the "surface" of the sun (that is, the photosphere, the shiny part we see), is 28 times stronger than the force of gravity on the surface of the Earth." Yes, I agree, it is about 27.6 times stronger but I also get a mere 14 days for the photosphere to rotate around the centre of the sun... shouldn't it be more like 30?
What is the cause of gravitational force betweet sun and earth?
the mutual gravity between the earth and sun causes the path or orbit of the earth to go around the sun.
actually both earth and sun go around a center of gravity inside but off center of the sun
you are very confused. and need to study basic force and motion
you are not alone. this was only figured out by newton in about 1650s or so.
nobody really knows what "gravity" is! we only observe how things move.
it is possible but not likely that angels are pulling earth around on strings.