The above equation is Newton's Law of Gravitation formulated by British physicist, mathematician and astronomer Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727).

When mass is in kilograms and distance is in meters, then G = 6.674×10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2 and the answer will be in newtons.

When mass is in grams and distance is in centimeters, then G = 6.674×10-8 cm3 g-1 s-2 and the answer will be in dynes.

The following 2 examples will help familiarize yourself with the formulas and with this calculator.

1) What is the gravitational force between 1 object of 3 kilograms of mass and another object of 7 kilograms of mass that are 12 meters apart?Click the 'Meters & Kilograms' button, then enter the numbers, click 'Calculate' and the answer is 9.7329 x 10-12 newtons.

Using the formula:

Force newtons = G•m1•m2 ÷ distance2

= 6.674×10-11 • (3 • 7) ÷ 122

= 9.7329×10-12 newtons

Click the 'Centimeters & Grams' button, enter the numbers, click 'Calculate' and the answer is 1.4416 x 10-9 dynes.

Using the formula:

Force dynes = G • m1 • m2 ÷ distance2

= 6.674×10-8 • (9 • 6) ÷ 502

= 1.4416×10-9 dynes

Numbers are displayed in scientific notation with the amount of significant figures you specify. For easier readability, numbers between .001 and 1, 000 will *not* be in scientific notation but will still have the same precision.

You may change the number of significant figures displayed by changing the number in the box above.

Most browsers, will display the answers properly but if you are seeing no answers at all, enter a zero in the box above, which will eliminate all formatting but at least you will see the answers.