Tapan Das, Ph.D., P.Eng. Tapan Das is a freelance technical and management consultant. He has 35 years of technical management experience in telecommunication, wireless, IP, WiFi and ASIC. He has worked as VP, Director and Technical Manager in SGNT Technologies, Lucent, Nortel and Plessey. He holds an M.Sc. in Electronics from University of London, UK and a Ph.D. in Microwave Electronics from University of Bradford, UK. He holds seven patents and has published number of papers in International journals. He had an active interest in Astrology for a long time and has been researching Astrology and Cosmology for the last three years. He has published two papers on this subject in RAMS, Sep 2005 and ISAR Vol XXXVI Number 3..He can be reached by email at firstname.lastname@example.org
Dark energy has been proposed by cosmologists to explain the accelerating expansion and missing energy density of the universe. In this respect, two models have been proposed cosmological constant and quintessence. The exact values of these models have not been assigned yet and will depend on further data obtained from cosmic observations.
A primordial energy flow in the universe has been conceived in many cultures Prana in India, Chi in China, Ki in Japan, Ankh in Egypt, etc. The main focus has been to study its impact on human life, and various techniques and practices have been pursued for thousands of years to cure human diseases with proven success. In this article, an analogy has been attempted between dark energy and the primordial energy of ancient culture, such as Prana, Chi, Ki etc.
In late 1920 Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe is expanding and the rate of expansion of a galaxy is linearly proportional to its distance from the observing point, Earth. In 1998, two independent teams of astronomers found that the expansion of the universe is speeding up. The universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. This acceleration started roughly 5 billion years ago. Since this breakthrough discovery, a new theory is emerging that the universe is filled with a uniform sea of dark energy that counts for two-thirds of the cosmic energy density, which is gravitationally repulsive, and does not appear to cluster in galaxies.
The concept of a primordial energy appears to be universal. It is regarded as the primordial life force itself, and is given different names by different cultures (Prana in India, Chi in China, Ankh in Ancient Egypt, Arunquiltha by the Australian Aborigine, Mana in Polynesia, Pneuma in Ancient Greece, Tane in Hawaii, Orenda by the Iroquois, Ki in Japan, etc.). Atma is another Sanskrit word meaning soul. Atma is the Prana in human life. This article explores an analogy between dark energy and primordial energy.
2.0 Dark Energy
Dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy which permeates the entire universe and has strong negative pressure. This negative pressure acts in opposition to gravity, and explains the recent observations that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. It also accounts for the missing mass in the universe.
Type 1a supernovae provide the most direct evidence of dark energy. As a star burns out, it collapses due to gravity to its small size called a white dwarf. This white dwarf gains mass from a companion star and grows until it reaches the precisely defined Chandrasekhar limit. At this mass, the white dwarf turns into a giant hydrogen bomb and explodes as a type 1a supernova with a characteristic brightness. The observed brightness of the supernovae is measured against their red shifts. The light of the receding distant star and supernova shifts to red due to the Doppler Effect. Measurement of the velocity of the supernova is accomplished by measuring its red shift.
The existence of dark energy also solves the so-called missing mass problem.
Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), most recently by WMAP satellite, indicate that the universe is very close to flat. For the universe to be flat, it must be equal to a certain critical density. The total amount of matter in the universe, as measured by CMB, accounts for only about 30% of the critical density. This implies the existence of dark energy to account for the remaining 70%. The most recent observations by WMAP satellite estimate that the universe is made up of 74% dark energy, 22% dark matter, and 4% ordinary matter as shown in Figure 1. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a NASA Explorer mission measuring the temperature of the cosmic background radiation over the full sky with unprecedented accuracy.
Dark matter has been proposed by the scientists to explain the fast spin of the galaxies. The spin of the galaxy is too fast to hold the galaxy together by the gravity of the stars in the galaxy. So there is certain amount of dark matter in each galaxy that holds the galaxy together.
The exact nature of the dark energy is a matter of speculation. Dark energy is very homogeneous, not very dense, and does not interact strongly through any of the fundamental forces other than gravity. Its density is roughly 10-29 grams per cubic centimeter. Dark energy can have such a profound effect on the universe since it uniformly fills otherwise empty space. The leading models of dark energy are cosmological constant and quintessence.
2.1 Cosmological Constant
The cosmological constant, denoted by the Greek letter L (Lambda) is a parameter describing the density of the dark energy . Since, energy and mass are related by E = mc2, Einsteins theory of general relativity predicts that it will have gravitational effect.